Sunday, September 22, 2013



The education system which was evolved first in ancient India is known

as the Vedic system of education. In other words, the ancient systems of

education were based on the Vedas and therefore it was given the name

of Vedic Educational System. Ancient education emerged from the Vedas.

They are supposed to be the source of Indian philosophy of life. Vedas

means ‘to know’.

Vedas occupy a very important place in the Indian life. The basis of Indian

culture lies in the Vedas which are four in number – Rigveda, Samveda,

Yajurveda, and Atharavaveda.

Tuesday, September 10, 2013


One of the most important schools of philosophy of education is pragmatism. Pragmatism stands between idealism and materialism a sort of compromise. Its origin can be traced from the Sophists philosophers of ancient Greece who held that man is the measure of all things.
The term pragmatism derives its origin from a Greek word meaning to do, to make, to accomplish. So the use of words likes ‘action’ or ‘practice’ or ‘activity’. Action gets priority over thought. Experience is   at the centre of the universe. Everyone is tested on the touch-stone of experience. Beliefs and ideas are true if they are workable and profitable otherwise false. Will Durant sums up pragmatism as the doctrine that truth is the practical efficiency of an idea. It follows there from that pragmatism is not a philosophy but a method–the method of experimentation. As a basis for school practice pragmatism opposes pre-determined and pre-ordained objectives and curriculums. The past of the pragmatist is dead.
     Values are instrumental only. There are no final or fixed values. They are evolved and are not true for all times and for all situations. According to an undeviating standard of worth, pragmatism tends to be individualistic, selfish; has no values; has no ethics and is thus superficial.

Monday, September 2, 2013


 According to Kothari commission, a teacher who unlike an ordinary worker, acts as a master, crafts man, an artist, a strategist and a powerful motivator. The environs of a classroom are enlivened by the inspiring, dynamic, enthusiastic, encouraging, skillful and dedicated teacher. It is he who shapes the destiny of students and that of the future citizens who eventually shape the destiny of the country. Such a teacher only can successfully in culture among children values that strengthen the ideals of social justice, equity, secularism and pluralism.

By its very definition, a professional, including a teacher is a lifelong learner because of his association with scientific knowledge which keeps growing and so opportunities have to be afforded to ensure that he keeps learning and developing throughout his professional life. This is precisely the responsibility of teacher education system which is more than a mere combination of two of its major components i.e. pre-service teacher preparation and in-service education.
Professional preparation and professional development of teachers is a continuous process. It begins with the selection of an aspirant teacher and includes his initial preparation induction into the profession and his continuous development throughout his teaching carrier. The formulation of policy and design of teacher preparation and continuing professional development should optimally take into account the whole spectrum of teacher learning. 
                  Pre-service education of teacher means, education of teachers before they enter into service as teacher. During this period of teacher education programmes, teaching practice goes side by side, while they are getting knowledge about theory papers. 

Thursday, July 4, 2013


Vocational Education and Training

At present, Vocational Education is provided only at
the +2 stage and, even here, it is restricted to a distinct
stream that is parallel to the academic stream. In
contrast to the NPE 1986 goal of covering 25 per cent
of the +2 enrolment in the vocational stream by the
year 2000, less than 5 per cent of students choose this
option at present. The programme has been debilitated
by a range of conceptual, managerial and resource
constraints for more than 25 years. Apart from being
viewed as an inferior stream, it suffers from poor
infrastructure, obsolete equipment, untrained or underqualified
teachers (often on a part-time basis), outdated
and inflexible courses, lac k of vertical or later al mobility,
absence of linkage with the ‘world of work’, lack of a
credible evaluation, accreditation and apprenticeship
system, and, finally, low employability (Report of the
Working Group for the Revision of the Centrally
Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary
Education, NCERT, 1998)

Wednesday, July 3, 2013


In-Service Education and Training of

In-service education can play a significant role in the
professional growth of teachers and function as an
agent for change in school-related practices. It helps
teachers gain confidence by engaging with their
practices and reaffirming their experiences. It provides
opportunities to engage with other teachers
professionally and to update knowledge. The Education
Commission (1964–66) recommended that in-service
education for teachers should be organised by
universities and teacher organisations to enable every
teacher to receive two or three months of in-service
education once in five years; that such programmes
should be based on research inputs; that training
institutions should work on a 12-month basis and
organise programmes like refresher courses, seminars,
workshops and summer institutes. The Report of the
National Commission on Teachers (1983–85) mooted
the idea of Teachers' Centres that could serve as meeting
places, where talent could be pooled and teaching
experiences shared. It suggested that teachers could go
to centres of learning on study leave. The NPE (1986)
linked in-service and pre-service teacher education on
a continuum;