Monday, September 2, 2013

PRE-SERVICE AND IN SERVICE TRAINING FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT



INTRODUCTION
 According to Kothari commission, a teacher who unlike an ordinary worker, acts as a master, crafts man, an artist, a strategist and a powerful motivator. The environs of a classroom are enlivened by the inspiring, dynamic, enthusiastic, encouraging, skillful and dedicated teacher. It is he who shapes the destiny of students and that of the future citizens who eventually shape the destiny of the country. Such a teacher only can successfully in culture among children values that strengthen the ideals of social justice, equity, secularism and pluralism.

By its very definition, a professional, including a teacher is a lifelong learner because of his association with scientific knowledge which keeps growing and so opportunities have to be afforded to ensure that he keeps learning and developing throughout his professional life. This is precisely the responsibility of teacher education system which is more than a mere combination of two of its major components i.e. pre-service teacher preparation and in-service education.
Professional preparation and professional development of teachers is a continuous process. It begins with the selection of an aspirant teacher and includes his initial preparation induction into the profession and his continuous development throughout his teaching carrier. The formulation of policy and design of teacher preparation and continuing professional development should optimally take into account the whole spectrum of teacher learning. 
PRE-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION, MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE
                  Pre-service education of teacher means, education of teachers before they enter into service as teacher. During this period of teacher education programmes, teaching practice goes side by side, while they are getting knowledge about theory papers. 
A good deal of improvement in the teacher education programme is needed. Pre-service education is carried on for preparing different types of teachers. Pre-service teacher preparation is a collection of unrelated courses and field experience. Research based curriculum development of pre-service teacher education is yet to take roots. These programmes are intended to support and enhance teacher learning instill in them a greater degree of self confidence. The beginning teachers in this case learn from their practice and from the culture and norms of the unique school settings where in they have been placed and interact with these cultures.
                It is important for teacher educators to learn the methodology of how to get in touch with the core qualities of a good teacher and how they can stimulate these qualities in student teachers. This will lead to a deeper involvement in the learning process of teacher educators as well as student teachers. The inclusion of appropriate content knowledge about essential qualities of a good teacher in relevant theory papers and practice of effective domain related traits in school situation for a longer duration could help promote these traits in student teachers. The teacher education programme needs to allow the space where in a teacher’s personality could be developed as someone who is reflective, introspective and capable of analyzing his or her own life and the process of education at school so that after becoming a teacher, he becomes an agent of change.
A.                 PRE-PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME.
 Here teachers are trained for teaching children of pre-primary classes. This type of teacher training is generally called nursery teacher training (N.T.T). Teacher training institute of this type are existing in different states. At Mussorie, there is Montessori teacher training programme in one institution. That type of training institutes are affiliated to association Montessori international. There are pre-basic teacher training schools which prepare teachers for pre-primary schools. These institutes are recognized by Hindustani Falimi sangh, Wardha. Some state governments also conduct this type of teacher training programmes. The universities of Jabalpur and Baroda run pre-primary teacher training course leading to certificate. At Chandigarh education department U.T. Administration is running such a course which is duly recognized by U.T Administration. In the state of Haryana about two decades back Haryana government had given affiliation for running this course of teacher training to Sohan Lal  D.A.V college of education, Ambala city. But then it was closed down by the government after the lapse of two-three years. At present a few schools and colleges of education in the state of Haryana are running one year N.T.T course meant for girls only who have qualified +2 examination. The said course is recognized by D.A.V college managing committee, New Delhi.
B.                 PRIMARY TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTES
Primary teacher training institutes prepare teachers for teaching to the children of primary courses. These institutes prepare the students for junior basic training certificate (J.B.T). This training has been very popular almost in all the states earlier       this training was meant for male and female teachers who were matriculates. Recently some modifications have been made for giving training of J.B.T. After passing J.B.T the teacher is able to earn a teaching diploma. How the minimum qualification for training has been raised to 10+2 examination. In the states of Punjab and Haryana, this type of teacher training is sanctioned to government teacher training schools (or) district institute of education and training (D.I.E.T) with the revision of grades of all type of teachers, J.B.T training centers attract students of higher calibers and they possess higher qualifications
                          The National Commission of Teachers has recommended the introduction of integrated four year course for matriculates which will enable the teachers to earn teaching diploma for teaching primary classes
C.                  LANGUAGES PROFICIENCY TEACHERS
This type of teacher training programme prepares teachers for teaching Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit. This training is meant for those who are 10+2. It helps them to earn a teaching certificate called O.T (Hindi), O.T (Punjabi), O.T (Sanskrit)etc. This type of teacher training programme has been popular in government as well as non government institutes. At present, his course is being run in a very few institutes. The government has almost withdrawn its sanction to private recognized institutions.
D.                 COLLEGE OF EDUCATION FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS
                   Teacher training for secondary schools is given in the government as well as non-government colleges of education. These colleges prepare teachers for middle, high (or) secondary classes. Generally in these colleges it is one year course after B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc.
                   With the revision of grades of teachers, the college of education has started attracting students with good qualifications. In some states like Punjab , Rajasthan, entrance test have been introduced. In the state of Haryana, The minimum qualification for competing in the admission to B.Ed is 50% marks in B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc. Besides, entrance test is also held. Marks in both are added up and then merit list is prepared.
E.                  REGIONAL COLLEGES OF EDUCATION
                    N.C.E.R.T started its own regional colleges of education in four regions of the country to meet the shortage of teachers for technical subjects such as agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science, etc. The different regional colleges of education are as under:-
(i)               REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, AJMER:-
It is meant for U.P, Haryana, Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir. (Northern region)
(ii)            REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION. MYSORE:-
         It is meant for south region which includes Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala.
(iii)          REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, BHOPAL:-
        It is meant for western states such as Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat
(iv)          REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, BHUBNESWAR:-
       It is meant for eastern states such as Assam, Manipur, Bihar, West Bengal and Tripura.
F.                  TRAINING INSTITUTIONS FOR SPECIAL SUBJECT TEACHERS:-
The following training institutions prepare special subject teachers such as music, drawing, painting, fine arts, home science, etc.
(a) Viswa Bharathi University, Santhinikethan (W.Bengal)
(b) Institute of Art education, Jumia mitia, Delhi.
(c) Government school of art, Luck now
(d) Kala kshetra, Adayar, Madras
(e) One year diploma in physical education for graduates at Govt: physical college of education, Patiala
G. INSTITUTE FOR POST GRADUATE TEACHER EDUCATION
A) ONE YEAR M.ED COURSE: - this course is meant for those who have already passed B.Ed. It is carried in the universities in some selected colleges of education.
B) M.A IN EDUCATION: - Like other M.A it is a two year course for graduates. It is generally run by different universities. M.A in education is considered equal to M.Ed.
Post graduate diploma in education, N.C.E.R.T, and some universities are running post graduate diploma courses for greater efficiency of teachers. A few such courses are in the field of research methodology, educational and vocational guidance evaluation, audio-visual aids, social education, distances education etc. These courses are mostly for teachers who have passed B.Ed.
Special courses for teaching English are conducted by control institute of English and foreign languages, Hyderabad and regional institute of English.
H. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE:-        
Correspondence courses for teacher education have been started by some universities and colleges. The four regional colleges of education under N.C.E.R.T were the first to start this course. It is 14 month courses including four months training during two summer vacation.
H.P University, Simla started B.Ed and M.Ed courses in 1972. After one year, B.Ed courses through correspondence were stopped. Jammu University, the B.Ed correspondence course by Jammu University was meant      only for in-service teachers. In south, Annamalai University is running B.Ed and M.Ed correspondence course. Punjab University, Patiala also started B.Ed and M.Ed correspondence courses. But new B.Ed by correspondence ion large scale is banned by N.C.T.E
IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION – MEANING
                The moment a teacher has completed his training in a college of education, it does not mean that he is now trained for all times to come. A teaching degree, like B.Ed makes him enter into service as a teacher. Thereafter his job continues well only if he continues his studies everyday in the classroom situations and outside the classroom, he comes across problems and side by side he is a expected to sort them out. There is need of more and more knowledge, more and more education for making him a better teacher.
                 There are formal an informal programmes of in-service education organized from time to time. The higher authorities concerned with education want to ensure that the standards of education are properly maintained. That is possible only if the teachers refresh their knowledge and keep it up to the mark. The different agencies, therefore keep on organizing teacher education programmes for enriching the knowledge of teachers and also for over all proficiency and betterment.
             According to Lawrence, “In-service education is the education a teacher receives after he has entered to teaching profession and after he has had his education in a teacher’s college. It includes all the programmes – educational, social and others in which the teacher takes a virtual part, all the extra education which he receives at different institutions by way of refresher and other professional courses and travels and visits which he undertakes.
HISTORY OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
              In-service education and training of teachers has its own historical roots. Its journey from pre-independence to post independence period is characterized by numerous policy statements recommendations of different commissions regarding its content and strategies for implementation it has grown from a concept to a process and gained its importance for preparing teachers towards professional growth and development. The root of in-service education can be traced back to pre-independent period of 1904 in Lord Curzon’s resolution of educational policy which stated, “The trained students whom the college was sent out should be occasionally brought together again in seeing that the influence of the college makes itself felt in the school.” Hartorg committee and sergeant committee referred to in-service education as refresher courses and recommended for their organization on a continuing basis. The secondary education commission was more specific in recommending the programme of extension services for secondary teachers.
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
                 In our country, the trend is that once a teacher has joined service as a teacher, he continues to be so, through he may or may not study. It is not like that in countries like U.S.A. There the teacher has to face the screening committee to his re-appointment as a teacher after two or three years. In-service education is badly needed for all types of teachers in India. The following points indicate its need and importance. 
1. EDUCATION- A LIFELONG PROCESS:-
The teacher who does not study side by side can’t remain a good teacher. Training of a teacher is a lifelong process. He should continue making efforts in this direction for the whole life. Rabindra Nath Tagore has rightly stated, “A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its flame. “ According to secondary education commission “However, excellent the programme of teacher training may be, it does not by itself produce an excellent teacher. Increased efficiency will come through experience critically analyzed and through individual and group effort and improvement.
2. PROFESSIONAL GROWTH:-
        Every teacher is a expected to be professionally bound, for the professional growth, he always needs the guidance and help of others. The efficiency of the teachers must be covered up. So the teacher need be up to the mark in every way.
3. EDUCATION IS DYNAMIC:-
         Education is very dynamic. It depends upon the society which is fast changing.  Due to the advancement in the field of science and technology, there is explosion of knowledge. Accordingly the curriculum and syllabus are also being changed with a good speed. Continuous in-service education of the teacher can save the teacher from facing dire consequences.
4. MAKES DEMOCRATIC
            In-service education helps the teacher in becoming fully democratic. By in-service education programmes, the teacher is able to meet people of all types and he is also able to share his experience with others.
PROGRAMMES OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
 SEMINAR- In a seminar some problems of education are taken up and there is collective thinking. Discussions are held and conclusions are arrived at all under the guidance of some experts.
REFRESHER COURSES: - A refresher course means an educational programme organized for refreshing the knowledge of in-service teacher. Generally they acquire the teachers with the new development in the field of education. With the coming up of new education policy, refresher courses were arranged all around for teachers of different categories.
WORKSHOPS: - Workshops are organized for giving in-service education to teachers. They involve more of practical work and less theoretical discussion. These types of programmes are more useful for the teachers. The teachers have to work practically and come out with final materials to be seen by others. Organization of workshops consumes more time than a seminar or conference.
CONFERENCE: - In a conference, there is a broad discussion of subjects of practical interest. Generally there is a central theme around which several sub topics are given. Teachers as per their interest, present paper at the time of conference. The session ends with the concluding remarks of the president
 STUDY GROUPS: - Forming study groups and using them as a technique for in-service education for teachers can work wonders. A group of teachers of the same subject and a subject expert in the college of education are combined and start working. They choose some topics of common interest (or) it may be a problem related to their teaching subject. Discussion is started under guidance and they continue thinking, studying and discussing that subject. If need arises, someone may be invited for extension lecture. The study groups may be meeting once in a week or even once in a month.
A STUDY CENTRE OF PROFESSIONAL WRITINGS: - Generally the materials are not under the reach of teachers. The college of education, the extension service departments can help in this direction. Various publications of N.C.E.R.T, some good books, materials produced by different centers of education may be produced in the college library.  The study of reading materials will help the teacher to acquire sufficient knowledge in their subjects.
EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOLS: - The College of education should have their demonstration school and experimental school. These are actually practicing schools where some experiences can be performed. Whatever is taught in theory, which is put into practice by carrying out experiments?
             The experimental schools become centers of learning for in-service teachers. Innovations done in these schools may be advocated among the teaching staffs of other schools.
              Regional colleges of education affiliated to N.C.E.R.T have their experimental schools where those colleges are showing leadership to the working teachers of other schools in their areas. Other colleges have their practicing schools but they don’t have any experimental schools or demonstration schools.
CORRESPONDENCECOURSES:
Correspondence courses can be designed for giving in-service education to teachers. A few universities have already started working in the area of in-service teacher education programmes. Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages at Hyderabad provides post graduate certificate course and diploma course through correspondence.
OTHER PROGRAMMES: - A few programmes for in-service education of teachers are suggested below:-
·         Educational tours
·         Radio broadcast
·         Film shows
·         T.V programmes
·         Extension lecture for teachers
·         Exhibitions
·         Exchange of teachers
PROVISION OF IN-SERVICE EDUCATION: - Different institutions are functioning where there is a provision of in-service education of teachers.  Some of them are doing commendable work in this field.
STATE INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION (SIE):- In different states, SIE have been set up which cater to the need of in-service education only. They organize seminars, workshops, etc.
STATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE: - In some states, they have set up institutes for in-service education of science teachers. They make efforts for developing scientific attitudes among the teachers. Science exhibitions are also conducted there which attract large number of children from the state. Thus it’s a great source of inspiration for teachers and their students.
REGIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENGLISH: -
Regional institute of English has been set up in different regions of the country. They have their affiliation with Central Institute of English and Foreign languages; Hyderabad. These institutes impact four month certificate course in teaching English to in-service teachers. The institutes gives scholarship to the trainees and the teachers are paid full salary by the schools were they are employed. These institutes are working for efficiency and improvement of English teachers
CONCLUSION
             “Good education requires good teachers” that it becomes essential that the most capable and appropriate be recruited into the teaching profession, provided with high quality pre-service programme of teacher education, and them offered opportunities to upgrade their knowledge and skills over the full length of their career. It is, therefore, essential that there is major reorientation of teacher education to ensure that teachers are furnished with the necessary knowledge and skills to cope with the new demands placed on them. It is strange to note that too often teachers are helpless in front of machines which refuse to work. How undignified it is for the teacher to be thwarted by machines
               With the increased capacity of communication technology, language will become a very powerful instrument. The teacher-education programme should be strengthened to develop language competency among our teacher-taught. The modern time demands multi lingual competence including the new computer languages that are bound to emerge with expansion of computer-technology.
              Continuing teachers and other educators which commences after initial professional education is over and which leads to the improvement of professional competence of educators all throughout their careers.


READ ALSO : ROLE OF SCERT IN PROMOTING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION

                       : AIM OF EDUCATION

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